Plot Arc Table Template

Here you can see my Plot Arc Table Template. To make it your own, all you need to do is download the word version (below) and replace my example Arcs with your own, or create a table in your choice of program. You can add or subtract columns and rows depending on the number of chapters and Arcs you are planning. Sometimes, I leave a square blank because nothing significant happens for that Arc/Character in that chapter. I find this is a really great method for planning out your story and ending up with a well-rounded narrative. I find that the pacing flows better if I have it all planned like this before hand, the plot has less (to no) holes, and the characters tend to follow more believable development patterns. It won’t work for everyone, but I encourage you to try it, and to make it your own!

Plot Arc Table Template

To download the word version, click here: PLOT ARC TABLE TEMPLATE


Honing Your Skills

Here is a paper I put together for my Writers’ Group on Honing Your Skills. To download a pdf copy, click here: Honing Your Skills.

Honing Your Skills

‘Honing Your Skills’ looks at Big and, primarily, Middle picture editing in fiction writing

-Big picture editing looks at the story as a whole

-problems here are easily avoided with simple planning

-Middle picture editing looks at scene-by-scene editing

-a lot of the exercises in this handout will be specifically targeted to this

An important note on scenes:

A scene is one place, at one time, from one point of view.

Any time one of these changes, you need to use a scene break.

Coloured pens/pencils (aside from a thesaurus and dictionary) are a writer’s best tool!

Things you need to be able to do in your writing:

-You need to be able to analyse your work and be reasonably objective to see what works and what doesn’t work

-You need to be able to understand your analysis

-You need to be able to work out what’s wrong with your work AND know how to fix it

-knowing how to fix it – theory

-being able to fix it – practise

About Fixing

#1 sometimes it doesn’t work the first time

#2 often, there are several ways to fix something

-but, usually there is one best way to fix it

-your job is to find that one way and then apply it

-something you’ll need to try each way out for a couple of pages to see if they work

Biggest problems

-For fiction

-foundation stones

-character/s, structure, plot, etc

-For non-fiction

-voice, pace, etc


1.      Purpose

Good scenes do more than one thing

What is the purpose/s of your scene from the perspective of:

-the story (what purpose does this scene serve? How does it connect to the plot/sub-plot)

text box 1 -the writer (writer’s intention

-the reader (what does this scene tell the reader?)

-the POV character text box 2(why are they in the scene?)

-every other character (why are they in the scene?)

2.      So What?

What’s happening in the scene?

Make a list of the ‘happenings’ in the scene. A ‘happening’ is an action, a dialogue or an internalisation. Likewise, it can be thought of as a moment of intensity within the story. It is something that forwards the story, an epiphany, a decision, etc.

There should be enough ‘happenings’ to keep the reader interested.

-1 page scene : 3-5 ‘happenings’

-2 or more pages long : 5-10 ‘happenings’

3.      Hot Spot/Core Happening

This is the biggest/most important ‘happening’ in the scene. This is THE ‘oomph’/bang for the scene. It is usually at the end (or close to the end) of the scene and is the HOOK that keeps readers reading.

This exercise relates to exercises 1 and 2.

-Look at your answers to exercise 1 and look for the dominant thread of your purposes – this will give you an idea of what your Hot Spot is.

-Look at your list of happenings’, the Hot Spot will occur towards the end.

Does the Hot Spot carry the weight of the scene?

-if you have a long scene, the Hot Spot will be bigger than if you have a short scene.

4.      Development

Having good development is making sure that the ‘happenings’ build towards a Hot Spot. Go back to your list from exercise 2 and see where your Hot Spot is. Do your ‘happenings’ lead up to your Hot Spot? There can be no coincidences in your story! The ‘happenings’ do not have to be action-related, they could be emotional or internal.

Go through your second and third exercise and mark the Hot Spot and developmental ‘happenings’ on your manuscript (not in red). Follow the spacing of the ‘happenings’, are they too close together or too far apart? Remember, regular spacing of ‘happenings’ leads to being too predictable.

-There is no hard and fast rule, however;

-2-3 developmental happenings per page = good

-4-5 on a page = too much

-only 1 = nowhere near enough

-6 or more = way too many

You want a certain amount of irregularity, but irregularity with rhythm, irregularity that works.

Think about:

-length of scene

-timing (in time, slow motion, etc)

‘Happenings’ will build (get closer together) as the scene builds in intensity.

BASICALLY: position ‘happenings’ with care!

Keep in mind the scene’s pace, intensity and heartbeat/rhythm.

5.      Padding/Backstory/Information/Explanation

For this, you will need a red pen/pencil!

Underline anything that can be considered padding, backstory, information or explanation.

If there is 20% or more of this on a page, it will kill the story. Likewise, there should not be more than 20% in a scene. Fantasy can try 25-30%, but it will still need to be interspersed well and not just dumped AND be only where it needs to be and when.

Line up only what needs to be said AND everything that needs to be said (ie foreshadowing)

It will not be the case that ‘all the red stuff’s got to go’

-do we need it? How do we need it?

All that is kept should feed into/be relevant to the purpose/s discovered in exercise 1 and the ‘happenings’ of exercise 2.

6.      Change

Change is part of the development of the story.

What has changed from the beginning of the scene to the end? Think of a chessboard, each scene and chapter is a move in a game of chess, ultimately leading to the end.

Plot                -level of action and suspense

-position in story

Conflict          -level of opposition

-position in story

Character       -level of knowledge/skill/equipment



-position in story

POSITION:    -is character stronger or weaker?

-could be simply moving to a different level of the story

-end with a hook (small ‘oomph’ signalling part of the sub-plot) or a cliff-hanger (big ‘oomph’ signalling part of the main plot)

7.      Character

What is the personality of the major players in the scene? There are two aspects to look at here. The first aspect has two sections:

1.      list 1-4 major traits (and nuances within those traits – ie is generous, but only to certain people)

2.      How the scene either activates or challenges those traits.

Make a list of the major character/s in the scene and come up with any answers to 1 and 2 that you can for each of them.

The second aspect has three sections:

1.      What is the character’s goal? (this relates to what they want through the course of the story)

2.      What is the character’s motivation? (this relates to what they want/do in the scene)

3.      What are the relationships/interactions between the characters in the scene?

Now, for each character come up with the answers to the next 1,2 and 3. The answers to 1 and 2 can and will often be the same.

8.      Point Of View (POV)

a.       What is your POV for this scene? And, why?

b.      Mark in red pen/pencil any

i.      Headswaps (go to a non-POV character’s head)

ii.      POV slips (author intrusion or exposition)

c.       Mark modes (show and tell)

i.      Mark in red any ‘tell’ modes – look for exposition or POV slips


Exposition/author intrusion/POV slip is NOT any action, dialogue, internalisation or description that comes from a character’s head. Only that which does not come from the character.

Allow only up to 20% per page maximum. Sometimes that sort of stuff just needs to be there – especially with fantasy writing.

Types of POV:

-First      -limited


-Third     -limited



-a neutral POV

-no emotions or thoughts, only observations.

-no values or judgments

-ie ‘a sunset’ not ‘a beautiful sunset’ (a camera wouldn’t know it was beautiful)

Exposition/author intrusion

-stops pace, rhythm of prose

-do not have blocks or ‘dumps’ of it – intersperse it

-use exquisite prose to help the reader over it

Remember: readers will connect better with a confined POV

A note: whose head/POV is it best to show the Hot Spot from? This is the character to choose for the scene’s POV

The Snowflake Method

Here’s a bit of something on plotting I have learned on my journey.

The Snowflake Method For Designing A Novel : The Ten Steps of Design

But before you start writing, you need to get organized. You need to put all those wonderful ideas down on paper in a form you can use. Why? Because your memory is fallible, and your creativity has probably left a lot of holes in your story — holes you need to fill in before you start writing your novel. You need a design document. And you need to produce it using a process that doesn’t kill your desire to actually write the story. Here is my ten-step process for writing a design document. I use this process for writing my novels, and I hope it will help you.

 Step 1) Take an hour and write a one-sentence summary of your novel. Something like this: “A rogue physicist travels back in time to kill the apostle Paul.” (This is the summary for my first novel, Transgression.) The sentence will serve you forever as a ten-second selling tool. This is the big picture, the analog of that big starting triangle in the snowflake picture.

When you later write your book proposal, this sentence should appear very early in the proposal. It’s the hook that will sell your book to your editor, to your committee, to the sales force, to bookstore owners, and ultimately to readers. So make the best one you can!

Some hints on what makes a good sentence:

  • Shorter is better. Try for fewer than 15 words.
  • No character names, please! Better to say “a handicapped trapeze artist” than “Jane Doe”.
  • Tie together the big picture and the personal picture. Which character has the most to lose in this story? Now tell me what he or she wants to win.
  • Read the one-line blurbs on the New York Times Bestseller list to learn how to do this. Writing a one-sentence description is an art form.

 Step 2) Take another hour and expand that sentence to a full paragraph describing the story setup, major disasters, and ending of the novel. This is the analog of the second stage of the snowflake. I like to structure a story as “three disasters plus an ending”. Each of the disasters takes a quarter of the book to develop and the ending takes the final quarter. I don’t know if this is the ideal structure, it’s just my personal taste.

If you believe in the Three-Act structure, then the first disaster corresponds to the end of Act 1. The second disaster is the mid-point of Act 2. The third disaster is the end of Act 2, and forces Act 3 which wraps things up. It is OK to have the first disaster be caused by external circumstances, but I think that the second and third disasters should be caused by the protagonist’s attempts to “fix things”. Things just get worse and worse.

You can also use this paragraph in your proposal. Ideally, your paragraph will have about five sentences. One sentence to give me the backdrop and story setup. Then one sentence each for your three disasters. Then one more sentence to tell the ending. Don’t confuse this paragraph with the back-cover copy for your book. This paragraph summarizes the whole story. Your back-cover copy should summarize only about the first quarter of the story.

 Step 3) The above gives you a high-level view of your novel. Now you need something similar for the storylines of each of your characters. Characters are the most important part of any novel, and the time you invest in designing them up front will pay off ten-fold when you start writing. For each of your major characters, take an hour and write a one-page summary sheet that tells:

  • The character’s name
  • A one-sentence summary of the character’s storyline
  • The character’s motivation (what does he/she want abstractly?)
  • The character’s goal (what does he/she want concretely?)
  • The character’s conflict (what prevents him/her from reaching this goal?)
  • The character’s epiphany (what will he/she learn, how will he/she change?
  • A one-paragraph summary of the character’s storyline

 An important point: You may find that you need to go back and revise your one-sentence summary and/or your one-paragraph summary. Go ahead! This is good–it means your characters are teaching you things about your story. It’s always okay at any stage of the design process to go back and revise earlier stages. In fact, it’s not just okay–it’s inevitable. And it’s good. Any revisions you make now are revisions you won’t need to make later on to a clunky 400 page manuscript.

 Another important point: It doesn’t have to be perfect. The purpose of each step in the design process is to advance you to the next step. Keep your forward momentum! You can always come back later and fix it when you understand the story better. You will do this too, unless you’re a lot smarter than I am.

 Step 4) By this stage, you should have a good idea of the large-scale structure of your novel, and you have only spent a day or two. Well, truthfully, you may have spent as much as a week, but it doesn’t matter. If the story is broken, you know it now, rather than after investing 500 hours in a rambling first draft. So now just keep growing the story. Take several hours and expand each sentence of your summary paragraph into a full paragraph. All but the last paragraph should end in a disaster. The final paragraph should tell how the book ends.

This is a lot of fun, and at the end of the exercise, you have a pretty decent one-page skeleton of your novel. It’s okay if you can’t get it all onto one single-spaced page. What matters is that you are growing the ideas that will go into your story. You are expanding the conflict. You should now have a synopsis suitable for a proposal, although there is a better alternative for proposals . . .

 Step 5) Take a day or two and write up a one-page description of each major character and a half-page description of the other important characters. These “character synopses” should tell the story from the point of view of each character. As always, feel free to cycle back to the earlier steps and make revisions as you learn cool stuff about your characters. I usually enjoy this step the most and lately, I have been putting the resulting “character synopses” into my proposals instead of a plot-based synopsis. Editors love character synopses, because editors love character-based fiction.

 Step 6) By now, you have a solid story and several story-threads, one for each character. Now take a week and expand the one-page plot synopsis of the novel to a four-page synopsis. Basically, you will again be expanding each paragraph from step (4) into a full page. This is a lot of fun, because you are figuring out the high-level logic of the story and making strategic decisions. Here, you will definitely want to cycle back and fix things in the earlier steps as you gain insight into the story and new ideas whack you in the face.

 Step 7) Take another week and expand your character descriptions into full-fledged character charts detailing everything there is to know about each character. The standard stuff such as birthdate, description, history, motivation, goal, etc. Most importantly, how will this character change by the end of the novel? This is an expansion of your work in step (3), and it will teach you a lot about your characters. You will probably go back and revise steps (1-6) as your characters become “real” to you and begin making petulant demands on the story. This is good — great fiction is character-driven. Take as much time as you need to do this, because you’re just saving time downstream. When you have finished this process, (and it may take a full month of solid effort to get here), you have most of what you need to write a proposal. If you are a published novelist, then you can write a proposal now and sell your novel before you write it. If you’re not yet published, then you’ll need to write your entire novel first before you can sell it. No, that’s not fair, but life isn’t fair and the world of fiction writing is especially unfair.

 Step 8) You may or may not take a hiatus here, waiting for the book to sell. At some point, you’ve got to actually write the novel. Before you do that, there are a couple of things you can do to make that traumatic first draft easier. The first thing to do is to take that four-page synopsis and make a list of all the scenes that you’ll need to turn the story into a novel. And the easiest way to make that list is . . . with a spreadsheet.

For some reason, this is scary to a lot of writers. Oh the horror. Deal with it. You learned to use a word-processor. Spreadsheets are easier. You need to make a list of scenes, and spreadsheets were invented for making lists. If you need some tutoring, buy a book. There are a thousand out there, and one of them will work for you. It should take you less than a day to learn the itty bit you need. It’ll be the most valuable day you ever spent. Do it.

Make a spreadsheet detailing the scenes that emerge from your four-page plot outline. Make just one line for each scene. In one column, list the POV character. In another (wide) column, tell what happens. If you want to get fancy, add more columns that tell you how many pages you expect to write for the scene. A spreadsheet is ideal, because you can see the whole storyline at a glance, and it’s easy to move scenes around to reorder things.

My spreadsheets usually wind up being over 100 lines long, one line for each scene of the novel. As I develop the story, I make new versions of my story spreadsheet. This is incredibly valuable for analyzing a story. It can take a week to make a good spreadsheet. When you are done, you can add a new column for chapter numbers and assign a chapter to each scene.

 Step 9) (Optional. I don’t do this step anymore.) Switch back to your word processor and begin writing a narrative description of the story. Take each line of the spreadsheet and expand it to a multi-paragraph description of the scene. Put in any cool lines of dialogue you think of, and sketch out the essential conflict of that scene. If there’s no conflict, you’ll know it here and you should either add conflict or scrub the scene.

I used to write either one or two pages per chapter, and I started each chapter on a new page. Then I just printed it all out and put it in a loose-leaf notebook, so I could easily swap chapters around later or revise chapters without messing up the others. This process usually took me a week and the end result was a massive 50-page printed document that I would revise in red ink as I wrote the first draft. All my good ideas when I woke up in the morning got hand-written in the margins of this document. This, by the way, is a rather painless way of writing that dreaded detailed synopsis that all writers seem to hate. But it’s actually fun to develop, if you have done steps (1) through (8) first. When I did this step, I never showed this synopsis to anyone, least of all to an editor — it was for me alone. I liked to think of it as the prototype first draft. Imagine writing a first draft in a week! Yes, you can do it and it’s well worth the time. But I’ll be honest, I don’t feel like I need this step anymore, so I don’t do it now.

 Step 10) At this point, just sit down and start pounding out the real first draft of the novel. You will be astounded at how fast the story flies out of your fingers at this stage. I have seen writers triple their fiction writing speed overnight, while producing better quality first drafts than they usually produce on a third draft.

You might think that all the creativity is chewed out of the story by this time. Well, no, not unless you overdid your analysis when you wrote your Snowflake. This is supposed to be the fun part, because there are many small-scale logic problems to work out here. How does Hero get out of that tree surrounded by alligators and rescue Heroine who’s in the burning rowboat? This is the time to figure it out! But it’s fun because you already know that the large-scale structure of the novel works. So you only have to solve a limited set of problems, and so you can write relatively fast.

This stage is incredibly fun and exciting. I have heard many fiction writers complain about how hard the first draft is. Invariably, that’s because they have no clue what’s coming next. Good grief! Life is too short to write like that! There is no reason to spend 500 hours writing a wandering first draft of your novel when you can write a solid one in 150. Counting the 100 hours it takes to do the design documents, you come out way ahead in time.

About midway through a first draft, I usually take a breather and fix all the broken parts of my design documents. Yes, the design documents are not perfect. That’s okay. The design documents are not fixed in concrete, they are a living set of documents that grows as you develop your novel. If you are doing your job right, at the end of the first draft you will laugh at what an amateurish piece of junk your original design documents were. And you’ll be thrilled at how deep your story has become.


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